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Dear Friend and Gardener

The Root of Laughter in the Garden

Anne Cleveland illustration

Anne Cleveland illustration in Weeds Are More Fun by Priscilla Hovey Wright

Laughing in the garden doesn’t always come easy. But what can you do after gnashing your teeth over the squash borers, weeping over the discovery of leaf miners in the beet bed, growling at the Japanese beetles in  the roses, or pulling up garlic mustard for the umpteenth time?  I imagine the gods laughing at me. But those who are wise will laugh and stiffen our backs for the next onslaught. I thought of this when my friend Karen brought me Weeds are More Fun by Priscilla Hovey Wright and published in 1941.

Wright has imagined every disaster from weeds, rashes, the Women’s Garden Club and proper garden attire, and of course, pests. Attacked as my squash were by borers, I was in complete sympathy with Wright who suggests filling a sprayer with “whatever there is in the house . . . leftover chicken broth, hair tonic bought in a rash moment, or bath salts received at Christmas. The bugs accustomed to the usual line of sprays and more or less immunized to them are totally unprepared . . . They either die of shock immediately or depart for the neighbor’s gardens as soon as possible.”

I may spend ample time gnashing teeth, etcetera, but laughter comes soon enough. Among the books on my shelves about organic control of pests, how to create shade gardens, or wildflower gardens or fruit gardens I have a number of books that take a lighter view of garden trials.

Charles Dudley Warner (1829-1900) born in Plainfield, and resident of Charlemont during his childhood years wrote My Summer in a Garden in 1870 while he was working for the Hartford Courant in Connecticut. His was a vegetable garden and his were the eternal problems, weeds that cover the garden when you go away for a week, the incessant battle against “pussley,” or finding his mess of peas decimated by the birds. “The dear little birds, who are so fond of strawberries, had eaten the peas.. . . I made a rapid estimate of the cost of seed, the price of labor, the value of the bushes, the anxiety of weeks of watchfulness. I looked about me at the face of Nature. The wind blew from the south . . . a thrush sang so deceitfully. All nature seemed fair, but who was to give me back my peas?”

He was never at a loss for the appropriate word. “What a man needs in gardening is a cast iron back – with a hinge in it.” Or “Lettuce is like conversation. It must be fresh and crisp so sparkling you barely notice the bitter in it.” Or “No man but feels more of a man if he have a bit of ground to call his own. However small it is on the surface, it is four thousand miles deep, and that is a very handsome property.”

Illustration by Josep Capek

Illustration by Josef Capek

You would not think that the Czech brothers, Karel and Josef Capek, who wrote together and who invented the word “robot” for a science fiction novel would also be avid gardeners. Karel did most of the writing and Josef who was an artist provided the cartoons for The Gardener’s Year printed in 1931.  The brothers take us through the year to describe how a man becomes a gardener, his lust for compost, and the agonies of searching for the first bulbs of spring. As Warner complains about his aches so do the Capeks. However, they allow “But there is one moment when the gardener rises and straightens him up to his full height and administers the sacrament of water to his little garden. Then he stands straight and almost noble, directing the jet of water . . . So, and now it is enough the gardener whispers happily; he does not mean by ‘it’ the little cherry tree covered with buds, . . . he is thinking of the brown soil.”

Beverley Nichols in England was caring for his first garden at about that same time as the Capeks. Down the Garden Path was published in 1932. Nichols was a prolific author, writing novels, plays, children’s books and non-fiction, but Down the Garden Path and its sequels were among his best sellers.

It was a time when Nichols felt that “everything was cracking up” and he wanted a place to hide. He set out to buy a piece of property and plant a woodland where he could do just that, but of course, he did not know how to plant a woodland. He took himself to a nearby nursery and met Mr. Honey who spoke exclusively in Latin.

“The first thing I said to him . . . was I like that big bush with red berries over there.”

‘Crataegus pyracantha credulata yunnanensis’ crooned Mr. Honey.

I took a deep breath and was about to reply when Mr. Honey waved his arm to the right and murmured: ‘Ribes sanguineum splendens.’

This I felt was enchanting. One had a sense of being a young disciple walking by the side of his master.”

Nichols could barely speak. The only Latin that came to his mind was “Et tu, Brute” which he knew was not appropriate, but so began the planting of his wood.

I always say there are many paths in the garden leading us to history, myth, science – and I think – laughter.

Between the Rows   September 2, 2017

Spirit of Stone by Jan Johnsen

The Spirit of Stone by Jan Johnsen

The Spirit of Stone by Jan Johnsen

Stone came into my garden last year. And I have to say it lifted my spirits considerably. There is nothing like a stone wall that you didn’t have to build yourself.

In her new book The Spirit of Stone (St. Lynn’s Press $21.95)Jan Johnsen shows us the many ways that many types of stone can be used in the garden, from practical porous driveway paving to rustic or elegant stone walls, walkway paving, dry gardens, as sculpture and much more. The subtitle is 101 Practical & Creative Stonescaping Ideas for Your Garden, and she delivers a full measure.

Johnsen’s aesthetic early experiences with stone began during her college years in Kyoto, Japan. She became aware of the significance the Japanese placed on stone in the garden. Later, she studied landscape architecture in Hawaii where she saw stone being made as fiery lava from volcanoes cooled.

She had personal experience with stone when she became a rock climber in New York State. She also spent time living near Barre, Vermont, where there are famous granite quarries. Over the years she has use rough fieldstones, flat stones, smooth river stones and large sculptural stones, all bringing a beauty and stability to the gardens she designs. She has clearly taken her experiences with varied types of stone and turned them into ideas for utilitarian, decorative and accent elements in the garden with instructions for making dry stream beds, stone steps, walkways and rock gardens.

Dry Stream Bed

Dry Stream Bed with various sized stone

Most of us probably don’t think about all the types of stone that can be used in the garden or the various forms it comes in from gravels to large flat stones for patios, but the beautiful illustrations in Johnsen’s book show a full range of stones and their uses.

One of the concerns even non-gardeners have had recently is the implications of recent droughts. This has brought about acceptance of the idea that it is very important to create pervious surfaces on our grounds, and to avoid using impervious paving when possible. I know in Cambridge, where my son lives, there are city regulations about how much of a property can be covered with paving.

Johnsen describes a new system for porous gravel driveways that I saw on display at a conference in Boston last fall. There are now polypropylene grids with small cells that can be attached to each other to create the size needed. These grids are then topped with gravel. The advantage over using gravel alone is that it is easier for people with strollers, bicycles or wheelchairs. It also “prevents weed growth and provides structural support without sacrificing drainage.”

Silent Spring at Bridge of Flowers

Silent Spring at Bridge of Flowers, stone fountain, bench and paving, designed by Paul Forth and John Sendelbach

Some stone may have purely decorative characteristics created by the pressure of ancient glaciers, or the large odd looking ‘scholar stones’ that are so essential to Chinese gardens.

During our years in Beijing I came to a great appreciation for stone in the garden in ways that had never occurred to me before. In The Spirit of Stone Jan Johnsen may open up new worlds for you.

Johnsen has taught at ColumbiaUniversity and currently is an instructor at the New YorkBotanical Garden. She is the author of Heaven is a Garden and renowned for her landscape design. She has a blog titled Serenity in the Garden.

Stone Steps at Vera's Garden

Stone steps at Vera’s Garden in Minneapolis

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Icy snow is still deep on the ground but spring is in the air. Next Saturday, March 4, the Spring Flower Show opens at Talcott Greenhouse at Mt.HolyokeCollege. This year’s theme is Spring Pools and I have been told that the approach is much more naturalistic than in the past. Visitors will walk into a woodland tableau with a pool surrounded by those early spring flowers.  Hours are 10 am to 4 pm every day from March 4 to Sunday, March 29.

SmithCollege will also open its Spring Bulb Show at Lyman Conservatory on March 4 and will be open from 10 am to 4 pm until Sunday March 29. Fields of Flowers is the theme, inspired by the work by the Irish artist Mima Nixon who travelled to the Netherlands to paint the flowers in 1909. The bulbs in the show are from the very fields that she painted 100 years ago. Suggested donation is $5.

Finally, I want to remind area school teachers that there is still a week before the Greenfield Garden Club School Grant deadline. In the past grants have been given to classes or school for tools, raised bed materials, and many kinds of projects like pollinator gardens that will help children understand scientific processes and feel a kinship with the natural world. Full information about the grants is on the Greenfield Garden Club website  http://www.thegreenfieldgardenclub.org/grants.html. ###

Between the Rows  February 25, 2017 

Late Bloomer by Jan Coppola Bills

Late Bloomer by Jan Bills

Late Bloomer by Jan Coppola Bills

Several years ago a friend asked me to give her advice about her garden which she said was out of control and too much work. When I visited I could see an immediate problem; her paths were too narrow. Wider paths would make it possible to walk through the garden side by side with a friend, and even provide better working space when it was time to weed or divide the collection of lovely perennials that comprised her garden.

She could see the wisdom in my suggestion; however when I asked if she had considered shrubs, she threw up her hands in horror and cried, “I’m too young for shrubs!”

Shrubs have been my response to the desire for a low maintenance garden, one that would be different from my gardens in Heath, but would still give me beauty and pleasure.

When Jan Coppola Bills sat down to write her book Late Bloomer: How to Garden with Comfort, Ease and Simplicity in the Second Half of Life (St. Lynn’s Press $18.95) she knew there were more and more gardeners who were in my position – loving gardening but without quite the stamina they had.

Happily for me and other readers of this book with its useful and beautiful illustrations Bills has more that one answer to creating a low maintenance garden.

Late Bloomer is divided into short illustrated chapters that begin with Simplicity and Sustainability and goes on to Garden Styling. Orderly Chaos, and Veggies, Fruit and Herbs and more. All the information and suggestions are useful to gardeners at any stage of their gardening career, but particularly valuable when a gardener sees the need to reduce the heavy labor required in their garden.

Bills has a chapter devoted to different ways to handle weeds. She includes a section on what I call lasagna gardening which calls for lots of cardboard. One version of this begins with digging up the sod, flipping the  sods, grass to grass, then laying on the cardboard and topping it with soil for planting and mulch. She also lays lots of cardboard right on the lawn where a new bed is needed and then covers the cardboard with a few inches of mulch. Then she says wait! Wait for the cardboard to decompose for a few months before you begin planting.

South Border lasagna bed June 2015

South Border lasagna bed June 2015

When we moved to Greenfield and discovered how heavy and wet our clay soil was I could not wait. I needed to plant right away. I began my own version of cardboard gardening. I worked in one section of a proposed bed at a time. I collected all the cardboard I could (thank you, Manny’s) and ordered yards and yards of compost and mulch from Martin’s Compost Farm. First we skinned off as much grass as possible with a weed wacker and watered that section. I then planted the shrubs I had bought, hydrangeas, lilacs, roses and viburnams. I dug big planting holes, and used a good measure of compost when planting. I gave all the newly planted shrubs a good watering and then laid out one or two layers of cardboard around the shrubs, filling that section of the bed. The cardboard also got a good watering before it was covered with several inches of soil and mulch and which were watered again.

I feel all that watering is essential because it helps the decomposition process get started, as well as providing moisture for the newly planted shrubs. Once the beds were created I planted perennials and groundcovers between the shrubs in the soil and mulch.

South border lasagna bed June 2016

South Border lasagna bed June 2016 – new shrubs thriving

Those first plantings were put in in June 2015 and I am happy to say that the shrubs and perennials have done splendidly even though we did have such a dry summer and fall. I give a large measure of credit to the rich compost-soil mixture and compost- mulch mixture I got from Martin’s Farm.

With all her advice, Bills does not forget the issues that are important to all gardeners, the desire to support our pollinators and butterflies who have been threatened by the use of many insecticides and herbicides and the benefits of using of using native plants in the garden. Native plants, trees, shrubs and flowers, provide the specific food that pollinators need to survive and propagate.

As we have created our new Greenfield garden we had two main goals, to choose plants that were tolerant of wet soil (right plant in the right spot) and that were native cultivars supporting some of the 300 plus species of native bees, butterflies and many other pollinators. One of the useful lists Bills provides is a list of plants that will support pollinators one way or another. Dill does not provide nectar or pollen for butterflies, but it does supply food for the swallowtail butterfly caterpillar. Once I realized the importance of supporting all stages of the butterflies I was happy to plant extra dill and parsley to share.

Bills’ final encouraging words are to resist the desire for perfection.  “I believe when you take unrealistic expectations out of gardening, new possibilities emerge.”

At my house my husband and I are apt to finish the project of the day with a sigh and the statement that what we have accomplished is “perfect enough.” We often remind each other that the weavers of beautiful Persian rugs always put a deliberate error in the design. According to Islam only Allah can make something perfect, and to make something perfect is an offense to Allah.

There is not much chance my garden will be perfect, but I will care for it, love it, and share it. That’s enough perfection for me.

Between the  Rows   November 26, 2016

Water-Saving Gardens by Pam Penick

Pam Penick

Pam Penick

Pam Penick, who grew up in the southeastern part of our country, wasn’t expecting the very dry garden she would get when she and her husband moved to Austin, Texas. The years she has spent learning how to have a beautiful dry garden have resulted in a desire to share all she has learned.

The Water-Saving Garden: How to Grow a Gorgeous Garden with a Lot Less Water (Ten Speed Press $19.99) begins by showing us some beautiful low-water gardens, in case we thought it was really impossible, and then teaches us the many ways to accomplish that kind of garden.

She urges us to make our gardens water savers, not water guzzlers. That means learning about the various ways that we can keep water from the heavens on our property and preventing it from draining away into the streets and sewers. In our own area we are familiar with the benefits of rain barrels, and even rain cisterns that can hold 500 gallons or more. Rain gardens are less familiar here but there is enormous benefit to keeping rainwater from the roof or parking lots on site instead of sending that dirty water into drains that may end up in streams and rivers.

Berming, microbasins and swales are other techniques that can be used, as well as creating permeable paths and patios by using unmortared stone pavers, gravel or mulch.

Penick gives full directions for these techniques and then launches into water-saving design elements like eliminating lawn. Penick is not a purist, she sees the beauty and appeal of lawn, but suggests that it need not be the main element of our property. Choosing lawn grasses that are more drought tolerant is another way to handle the desire for a lawn.

After planning comes the actual planting. Penick discusses drought resistant plants, and native plants that thrive in your climate and soil. There is so much to consider when planning any garden and Penick’s view is certainly comprehensive.

I was particularly charmed by the chapters on creating the illusion of water. There are photos of grasses that ripple in the wind, wavy clipped hedges, weeping trees, a meandering ‘stream’ made of a single type of groundcover or flower, dry steam beds or even a reflecting pond made by a mirror.

The Water-Saving Garden by Pam Penick

The Water-Saving Garden by Pam Penick     Photo courtesy of Ten Speed Press

Penick concludes with 101 plants for water-saving gardens. Here in Massachusetts we don’t have Austin’s blistering climate, at least not most of the time, but this year our gardens have suffered for lack of rain. The whole region has been declared a drought region. Indeed, the whole country is experiencing more drought and we all need to think about water conservation. If we are going to cut down on supplemental watering we need to think about drought tolerant plants, unless we have a special fund to cover our increased water bills. Many of the drought tolerant plants on Penick’s list are very happy in our part of the world.

Penick is a garden designer, an award winning blogger and the author of Lawn Gone! which I have written about in the past. She has also written for Garden Design, Organic Life and Wildflower. She is a conversational and graceful writer who will delight as well as educate and inspire.

Mystery Solved

Last week in my column on weeds I included a photo of a mystery plant. Before I even woke on Saturday I received an email from Liz Pichette who said it was an aster, Symphyotrichum cordifolium, or heartleaf aster. I was glad she agreed with my waffly thought that it was an aster, but after checking my plant again, I did not see any heart shaped leaves.

However, Liz quickly sent another email saying she thought the tall plant by my porch that I described, but did not provide a photo, was wild lettuce.  Had I ever heard of wild lettuce? No. She gave the name Lactuca biennis, which I then checked on the Minnesota Wildflowers website and it matched perfectly, down to the very very fine hairs on the stem.

Lactuca biennis identified

Lactuca biennis identified

Shirley Pelletier also sent me an email and said the aster looked like the “common wild aster” to her – and I agreed with my weed book which listed the white heath aster as very common. It also said that the branching flower panicles could account for half the height of the plant. I ran out to look again at my plant, and sure enough, the branching portion of the plant is half the height. This business of identifying a plant means very careful observations of all the parts of the plant, and it helps if you have the vocabulary to match up what you observe with the written scientific descriptions in a guide book.

Thank you Liz and Shirley for being so helpful. I resolve to be more observant.###
Between the Rows   August 20, 2016

 Lilian Jackman is the owner of Wilder Hill Gardens in Conway and I have written about her wonderful gardens in the past. On Sunday, September 4  she is inviting everyone to her garden and the dedication of her two stone stupas which are Buddhist sacred sculptures. There will be activities for all, including the children, Tibetan dancing, and food. Come between 3 and 5 PM and join the celebration. There is no cost, but donations are welcome.

All the Presidents’ Gardens

All the President's Gardens by Marta McDowell

All the President’s Gardens by Marta McDowell

I just finished reading All The Presidents’Gardens which gave me a whole new perspective on Fourth of July celebrations. Our views of our presidents sometimes take the form of some character defining story, like young George Washington and his cherry tree, or singular achievement like Thomas Jefferson and the Louisiana Purchase or Franklin Roosevelt and the New Deal.  In All The President’s Gardens: Madison’s Cabbages to Kennedy’s Roses – How the White House Grounds Have Grown With America Marta McDowell gives us an engaging history of changes in our nation through the history of the White House Gardens.

It all begins, of course, with George Washington who never planted a garden for the White House because it did not exist when he took office. However, it was President Washington who signed an agreement, after contentious discussions, brokered by Thomas Jefferson and James Madison that named a ten acre site on the Potomac as the new capital city. Washington also appointed the architect Pierre L’Enfant to design the new city, and he himself chose the site for the White House on a rise with expansive views. Unhappily, Washington died before the White House was built or gardens planted.

Washington and Jefferson had their country estates and a passion for plants. John Adams was a farmer and he was the first to occupy an unfinished White House, and that was near the end of his term of office. He was defeated in a bitter race by Jefferson who spent most of his two terms concentrating on new buildings for the capital, and larger landscapes than those surrounding the still unfinished White House.

When James Madison took office the White House grounds were described as muddy, “disgusting scenes.” Madison began planting and the oldest plant list for the executive mansion is dated March 31, 1809. Flowering shrubs and trees, pines, hollies, lilacs and roses were ordered and planted along with a substantial list of vegetables for the president’s table. Some of those vegetables might have been bought from the Shakers (United Society of Believers in Christ’s Second Coming) who were making a good business of raising seed and marketing it in seed packets, a technique they invented. Things were beginning to shape up when the British burned the president’s house and destroyed the gardens in 1814.

John Quincy Adams found his single term as president so trying that he turned to the gardens for respite. He worked with John Ousley, the new head gardener, and found a place where he could please himself, not the demands of the political world.

Marta McDowell

Marta McDowell

McDowell gives full credit to the head gardeners with a special section titled First Gardeners from Thomas Magraw who served under James Madison, and John Ousley who served from 1825-1852. John Watt served under Lincoln and it was he who fudged his books to help Mrs. Lincoln who always spent way beyond her allowed dress budget. Henry Pfister was another head gardener who worked for a quarter century, caring for the great greenhouses that provided flowers for White House arrangements, for Grover Cleveland’s wedding to Frances Folsom, and provided a beautiful welcoming space for Ida McKinley who suffered from epilepsy.

So many stories. Teddy Roosevelt brought his rambunctious family and their pets including Peter Rabbit who earned a state funeral in the garden.

It was Helen Taft who supported the plantings of Japanese cherry trees along the tidal basin – a project that took time and great cooperation with Japan to bring the project to fruition.

President Wilson had sheep on the White House Lawn when there was a shortage of men to mow

President Wilson had sheep on the White House Lawn when there was a shortage of men to mow p photo courtesy of Library of Congress

The White House gardens did their bit during the World Wars. Gardener William Reeves was gardener-shepherd to Wilson’s flock of sheep on the White House Lawns. A victory garden took the place of sections of lawn during WWII.

Harry Truman watched while rolls and rolls of sod were laid out around a cherry tree in full bloom that was planted in preparation for the arrival of the Queen of the Netherlands. Eisenhower put in a putting green and arranged to have helicopters land on the South Lawn.

Many of us may have our own memories of The Rose Garden being installed by President Kennedy in 1962, or President Carter bringing trees from his Georgia farm. Michelle Obama put her stamp on the garden in 2009 by making a food garden that includes varieties from Jefferson’s garden at Monticello. This garden was intended as a demonstration garden that would help teach children about healthy eating. School children came to work in the garden to gain an understanding of the food they ate. Bees were added to the garden as well as a pollinator bed. All of it makes a great teaching garden.

In addition to the excellent section on First Gardeners, McDowell gives us an extensive list of plants grown in the gardens.

My own mantra about gardens (and life) is that Everything Changes. This engaging book gives us the history behind the changes in the White House gardens, and perhaps makes us wonder what changes will come in the future.

In this year with its own extraordinary presidential campaign, I want to stress that All The President’s Gardens is not about politics but a history of garden styles, trends, and needs of the White House, reflecting the styles and tenor of the times told in a charming conversational way.

At one time there were great greenhouse for food and  cut flower production, as well as a beautiful space to visit.  Photo courtesy of Library of Congress

At one time there were great greenhouse for food and cut flower production, as well as a beautiful space to visit.  1889 Photo courtesy of Library of Congress

Between the Rows  July  2, 2016

Tovah Martin and Terrariums

Tovah Martin

Tovah Martin photo by Kindra Clineff

Tovah Martin, gardener and author, has devoted a good part of her life to houseplants. Most of us have a limited view of what houseplants we might put on our windowsills, but when she found herself working at the wonderful Logee’s Greenhouse in Connecticut she fell in love with the hundreds of houseplant varieties put into her care.

Over the years Martin has written books like Well-Clad Windowsills: Houseplants for Four Exposures, The Unexpected Houseplant: 220 Extraordinary Choices for Every Spot in Your Home; The Indestructible Houseplant: 200 Beautiful Plants That Everyone Can Grow; and The New Terrarium: Creating Beautiful Displays for Plants and Nature. Her knowledge about the needs and benefits of various houseplants, as well as their beauty, sometimes sculptural and sometimes romantic, is encyclopedic, and her prose is a delight touched with humor.

As a part of the 25th Anniversary celebration of the Greenfield Garden Club, the Club is bringing the notable and charming Tovah Martin to Greenfield on Sunday afternoon, June 5 to give a lecture on terrariums, followed by a book signing, and then a terrarium making workshop. This event will be held at the gracious Brandt House on Highland Avenue.

Martin looks at terrariums as a practical way to have a whimsical or calming snippet of nature at hand, no matter what kind of houseplant space you might have. When I spoke to Martin I asked when she became an expert on terrariums. “I’ve made terrariums my whole adult life. Actually even before that. And now I give workshops for every age group from Brownie troops to senior citizens,” she said.

Terrariums are always a popular type of garden from the charming berry bowls filled with a bit of American teaberry with its shiny petite foliage and red berries, to fish tanks turned into a woodland scene. “Terrariums are the smallest landscape you’ll ever have to design,” Martin said. Participants in her workshop should bring their own container but other terrarium materials will be provided. “Almost any glass can be used for a terrarium,” she said. She added that she has a pretty good eye and is frugal so she is a regular at Goodwill stores. No glass container is too humble, large wide mouth mason jars work just as well.

The New Terrarium by Tovah Martin

The New Terrarium by Tovah Martin

“Everyone should have nature by their side and terrariums make it easier. Terrariums are self watering, they almost grow on auto-pilot. Terrarium plants get the humidity they need, especially in the winter when our houses are so dry from the heating systems,” she said.

In her workshop she will demonstrate, and guide participants in the making of a terrarium that includes soil and plants, using surprising tools and giving useful tips. She will cover the basics of construction, and care from every angle including watering and light sources. Terrariums should not be placed in the sun, which is one reason they are such a good solution for the house that does not have much in the way of sunny windows, or possibly an office with limited light.

Beyond the closed terrarium that I am familiar with Martin points out that a terrarium is also an ideal environment for handling cuttings and making new plants, or for starting seeds. She said not all terrariums need to be closed and that even an open terrarium environment can help conserve moisture and will keep a plant happy with less work.

Extra pleasures on June 5: Michael Nix will be providing music, Kestrel of Northampton will be selling terrarium plants and supplies, and the World Eye will be selling books. Tickets are available at World Eye Books or can be ordered by calling Jean Wall at 773-9069. The cost of the lecture is $25 and $50 for the lecture and the workshop. Garden Club members get a discount of $20 and $40. For more information log on to the Greenfield Garden Club’s website http://www.thegreenfieldgardenclub.org/special-events.html

*   *   *

 

It is Plant Sale Season. Today the Bridge of Flowers is having their annual plant sale that will include shrubs, annuals and perennials; many are divisions of plants on the Bridge. There will be a great variety from asters to peonies to violets. Master Gardeners will be on hand to do soil testing. The sale will be held on the TrinityChurch’s Baptist Lot on Main Street in ShelburneFalls from 9 am to noon, rain or shine. All profits benefit the Bridge.

Next Saturday, May 21 is the Garden Club of Amherst’s plant sale under the tent on the Common next to the Farmer’s Market from 8:30 am to 2:30 pm. Profits benefit conservation efforts and a scholarship fund.

On Saturday, May 28 The Greenfield Garden Club will hold its annual Extravagaza on the lawn of St James Episcopal Church on Federal Street from 9 am to 2 pm. In addition to plants donated by club members there will be a tag/book sale, a bake sale and face painting for the kids. Rain or shine. Profits benefit the grant program for area schools.

Between the Rows   May 14, 2016

 

After Pollinators and Wildflowers Comes a Cocktail Hour

Pollinator Friendly Gardening by Rhonda Fleming Hayes

Pollinator Friendly Gardening by Rhonda Fleming Hayes

It doesn’t seem so very long ago that no one gave a thought to pollinators. People were afraid of bees and stings, but they never thought about the hundreds of bee species that kept vegetable and fruit farms producing. Perhaps that was because so much of our food came from far off places like California where we were never aware of what farms, farmers and crops needed.

Nowadays, with people we are more sensible of the benefits of local farms and local food. We realize that at least 30% of the world’s food crops need to be pollinated. Happily there are many more bees and insects that do this important job than we ever imagined. Unhappily human civilization continues to encroach on the habitat that pollinators need. Developments of all sorts, housing, business and even agriculture are taking land that was wild, land that provided the plants and living spaces that bees and other pollinators need to thrive.

Pollinator Friendly Gardening: Gardening for Bees, Butterflies and other Pollinators by Rhonda Fleming Hayes (Voyageur Press $21.99) notes that our awareness of the needs of pollinators has been raised. Hayes has set about showing us how we homeowners can take responsibility for improving pollinator habitat right in our own backyards.

Hayes interviews pollinator experts to talk about the value of native plants versus ‘nativars,’ native plants that have been hybridized; the problems created by GMOs; the need for shelter for pollinators; and the necessity of many other beneficial insects.

She provides plant lists to help us include useful plants for pollinators, plants that bloom throughout the season providing nectar, and food for caterpillars. Once I realized how important dill and parsley were to the swallowtail butterfly caterpillars, I never again bemoaned loosing my crop to those caterpillars.

Pollinator Friendly Gardening includes occasional Fun Facts, as well. Did you know that the bees in White House kitchen garden produce enough honey to give as gifts at state dinners and to visiting diplomats? That a single little mason bee does as much pollinating as 100 honeybees? That milkweed seed capsules were collected during WWII so that the fluffy seed material could be used to fill servicemen’s lifejackets?

Hayes, a Master Gardener, has gardened, photographed, and written in various locations and in Minneapolis for the last few years.

Wildflowers of New England by Ted Elliman

Wildflowers of New England by Ted Elliman

Ted Elliman and the New England Wild Flower Society have put together a comprehensive new wildflower guide that has images and information of over 1000 native plants. This book not only has beautiful and helpful images, the introductory section is a veritable course in botany that will help you to identify the plants you find on your nature walks. Since 90% of the wild plants around the world need pollination I can’t help thinking how wildflowers would suffer without pollinators.

Wildflowers of New England (Timber Press $27.95) is very easy to use because it provides a clear road to identitification. You begin with color, but within the color sections plants are organized by petal design and number. For example red Kalmia angustifolia with 5 radial petals is listed after dame’s rocket (Hesperis matronalis) which has 4 radial petals.

With this guide I have hopes of finally differentiating between 11 varieties of aster from 4 different genus: Doellingeria; Oligoneurn; and Symphyotrichum. Of course, the fleabanes (Erigeron) are similar (to my uneducated eye) but I think I stand a fighting chance of knowing one from the other because of the clear photographs and text.

Wildflowers of New England is a substantial little book, in many ways, but the heavy, shiny cover, complete with ruler marking, is tough enough to take on hikes for frequent, on- site referrals.

After all the joyous work of studying pollinators and wildflowers, you might be ready for The Cocktail Hour Garden: Creating Evening Landscapes for Relaxation and Entertaining by C.L. Fornari (St. Lynn’s Press $19.95) who lives out on Cape Cod.

The Cocktail Hour Garden by C. L. Fornari

The Cocktail Hour Garden by C. L. Fornari

Fornari suggests we consider our domestic landscape as a party venue, beginning with a quiet cup of coffee in the morning and all kinds of family celebrations that might take place in the garden, to a companionable cocktail hour with a spouse or friends in the evening.

What plants should be included in this garden? Some plants can provide tactile experiences like the soft blades of Mexican feather grass or velvety silver lamb’s ears. Fragrance on the evening air can be supplied by perennials honeysuckle, lavender, oriental lilies. Don’t forget fragrant annuals like Virginia stocks or nicotiana.

Fornari also makes suggestions about lighting, water in many forms, and sound in the garden that can be enjoyed by the gardener, but she also writes about keeping butterflies and birds happy too.

Since this is a cocktail hour garden she is talking about, she also includes cocktail recipes, including non-alcoholic drinks, and the herbs and  flowers that can dress up and spike those drinks. Her tone is conversational, a charming invitation to join her for a cocktail and conversation at the end of the day.

Between the Rows   April 9, 2016

 

 

L is for Literature – Literature about Gardening

L is for Literature.  In the A to Z Challenge I am referring specifically to Garden Literature which covers a lot of ground. I cannot garden or do much of anything without books. There are general garden books and specific garden books. I’ll mention just a few of my favorites with links to earlier columns that will have more information about each of them.
Kiss my Aster

Kiss My Aster by Amanda Thomsen

            One of my oldest and most useful vegetable garden books is How to Grow More Vegetables Eighth Edition: (and Fruits, Nuts, Berries, Grains, and Other Crops) Than You Ever Thought Possible on Less Land Than You Can Imagine… (And Fruits, Nuts, Berries, Grains) by John Jeavons. I have the 1979 edition and it is well worn. There is all the basic information you need to grow vegetables from tools, fertilizing, composting, efficient planting, and companion planting.
The 20-30 Something Garden Guide

The 20-30 Something Garden Guide by Dee Nash

    If you are a new gardener you will find The 20-30 Something Garden Guide: A no fuss, down and dirty Gardening 101 for anyone who wants to grow stuff by Dee Nash, professional writer, gardeners and speaker. The 20-30 Something Garden Guide is divided into three main sections that first take the gardener into a container garden, and all the basic information about potting soil, garden soil, fertilizers, watering, and bugs. Let it be known that Nash’s own garden is organic. In addition to providing herself with healthy food and beautiful flowers, she is determined to do her part in supporting the natural world with its pollinators and other bugs, good and bad.
            For a humorous and sassy introduction to gardening try Kiss My Aster by Amanda Thomsen. This is a ‘graphic guide to creating a fantastic yard totally tailored to you, Thomsen has real insight into the mind and psyche of the new gardener. You can tell because on Page 14 she asks, “Overwhelmed? Don’t be. You’re just reading a book. Wait until you’re knee deep in quick set concrete before you freak out.” Does that tell you what kind of gardener she is?
            For all her smart aleck frivolity and word play, Thomsen walks you through figuring out what can grow in your area, including taking a camera tour through your neighborhood to see what other people are growing This tour will give you inspiration and information Then you can show the photos of the plants you like to the people at the garden center, get them identified and buy them. She is full of slick tips like this.
Roses Without Chemicals

Roses Without Chemicals by Peter Kukielski

  I am passionate about non- fussy roses. A book with the most information about these roses is in Peter Kukielski’s book Roses Without Chemicals: 150 disease free varieties that will change the way you grow roses. He is the former curator of the Peggy Rockefeller Rose Garden at the New York Botanical Garden and is now Executive Director of the American Rose Trials for Sustainability. He is also working with Earth Kind Roses.
            In my new house I am trying to eliminate lawn. A book I have found extremely useful and inspiring is Lawn Gone! Low Maintenance, Sustainable, Attractive Alternatives for your Yard by Pam Penick. Whatever your reason, Penick has practical advice and instructions about ways to create beautiful spaces without a lawn. Groundcovers are an easy answer. In fact, many perennials and small shrubs cover the ground and add great interest when planted over a generous area. Some of Penick’s chapter titles will tempt you to imagine a new yard of your own. For example: Ponds, pavilions, play spaces and other fun features. The designing and installing your hardscape chapter will immediately set your mind buzzing.
The Indestructible Houseplant

The Indestructible Houseplant by Tovah Martin

     For those who love houseplants, or wish they had houseplants there is Tovah Martin. The Indestructible Houseplant: 200 Beautiful Plants That Everyone Can Grow by Tovah Martin ($23 Timber Press) As far as I am concerned Tovah Martin is certainly the Queen of Houseplants. Readers who drooled over her earlier book The Unexpected Houseplant with special attention to gorgeous or surprising containers will be happy to see The Indestructible Houseplant.
            One of my favorite books focuses on bugs and birds. Douglas Tallamy, in his book Bringing Nature Home explains why bugs are good, and why having bugs in your garden will attract the birds. Many bugs are beneficial. This is a call to avoiding broad spectrum pesticides. And a delightful read! Talk about Literature! This is the real thing.

 

Lawn Gone!

Lawn Gone! by Pam Penick

            To see who else is writing a post every day in April lick here.

New England Gardening Books

Month by Month Gardening in New England

Month by Month Gar dening in New England

Who knows what weather tomorrow will bring? We are living in New England. No telling what the weather will be from one minute to the next. All I know is that we are getting closer and closer to spring, which means thinking about how soon we can possibly get out into the garden, and possibly wondering how long it will take us to feel that all of a sudden we are way behind in our chore

Charlie Nardozzi, author of Month-by-Month Gardening New England (Cool Springs Press $24.99) has recognized that some of us need help in planning our use of time and has created a month by month calendar of tasks that will keep every section of our New England garden healthy and beautiful.

For every month he gives advice about planning, planting and on-going care which includes watering and fertilizing, and finally solving problems like pests and disease. What makes this book so useful is his dividing each of these sections into specific advice for annuals, edibles, perennials, shrubs, and trees. This makes it easier for us to use if we don’t have every single category in our gardens.

Of course, having a chore schedule isn’t very helpful if we don’t have how-to advice on some of those chores. Nardozzi gives good instructions on planting trees and shrubs, on pruning, building a cold frame or raised bed, controlling tomato blight, aerating the lawn and many other tasks that are not only time sensitive, but may also require new skills.

Nardozzi covers a lot of ground (pun intended) and the book is well illustrated with excellent and clear photographs. His other books include Northeast Fruit and Vegetable Gardening and he has an excellent website www.gardeningwithcharlie.com.

Growing the Northeast Garden

Growing the Northeast Garden

If you want help choosing plants for your garden Andrew Keys, gardener, author and lecturer, has just written Growing the Northeast Garden (Timber Press $24.95) which provides information about the best trees, shrubs, perennials, bulbs, vines and grasses, as well as design suggestions that will make our gardens just what we have been dreaming of.

Keys begins with an overview of New England weather and soil conditions. Weather is unpredictable, but we can protect our most vulnerable plants by paying attention to the microclimates we may have in our gardens. In Heath our garden was on a southern slope where the winds blew the last frosts of winter and first frosts of fall down the hill leaving not even a kiss on my latest bloomers

Keys quickly launches into the best plant section with beautiful photographs by Kerry Michaels. This section presents a palette of different types of plants from trees, to annuals, those bright helpful plants that give us consistent bloom all season. We all know that each plant has a season when it is most interesting or spectacular whether because of bloom, or seasonal color. Knowledge of bloom times is certainly important if you are trying to have something blooming in the garden from early spring through the fall.

Many of the plants in Keys’ palette will be familiar, but others may come as a surprise. I always think of boxwood as a tender plant, but it is hardy in zone 4 which is minus 25 degrees. Likewise, European hornbeam which will grow into a very large tree, and yet it is often sheared and kept low and dense for a handsome hedge.

Grasses in the garden make me a little nervous. I fear they will take over. Keys offers a good selection of grasses that appear well behaved, but I will always be wary of Miscanthus grasses which grow and increase so rapidly.

Once you have gorged on beautiful images of plants that could inspire admiring glances from your friends, you will be happy to look at the section on design. Keys gives some basic design tips, but lets you see how these take shape in different northeastern gardens, each with a very different style and feel.

Finally there is a section on garden practice from building the soil, welcoming birds and butterflies and managing those less desirable creatures like squirrels and chipmunks. We love those ‘flying flowers’ like butterflies, but are less enthusiastic about the rodentia family.

For the Love of Everything

For the Love of All Seasons

Lastly, I want to mention a little garden calendar book, For the Love of All Seasons, which got lost in the mail on its way to my new address. Valerie Vaughn of Colrain did the line drawings to accompany a text by her good friend Geoff Allison who passed away last year. Allison was born blind, but he had an intimate relationship with the plants that he brought into his life and wrote about.

For the Love of All Seasons is a compilation of essays he wrote some years ago. He had an amazing knowledge of history and botany. He never mentions color, but his sensitivity to fragrance, texture, and sometimes taste are palpable. Always he is aware of the ‘aliveness’ of each plant.

Allison’s essays are interspersed with calendar pages, but when the days of 2016 have passed this modest book will have earned a place on your shelf, ready to refresh your own ideas of the ‘aliveness’ of the plants in your garden. It is available at McCuskers for $16 and at Collective Copies for $12.

 

Between the Rows   February 27, 2016

 

 

 

Blue Ribbon Vegetable Gardening by Jodi Torpey

Blue Ribbon Gardening by Jodi Torpey

Blue Ribbon Gardening by Jodi Torpey

What excites you in the vegetable garden? For some gardeners it is competition and the desire to grow the biggest, most beautiful beet or squash or cabbage. Jodi Torpey’s book Blue Ribbon Vegetable Gardening: The secrets to Growing the Biggest and Best Prizewinning Produce (Storey Publishing $16.95) will help all those competitive gardeners out there, while some gardeners might think it is time to take up the challenge and enter their vegetables at the Franklin County Fair this year.

Planting a giant pumpkin may not be your dearest desire, but Torpey has lots of advice for those of us who just want to grow the most beautiful beans or carrots. I had my first painful lessons about showing off my beans and blackberries at my first Heath Fair in 1980. I put my berries in a pretty bowl and put my ten green beans on a pretty plate. The ladies who were setting up the Exhibit Hall took me aside to explain the presentation rules and gave me the regulation white paper plate for the beans which was very kind of them. The judges were also kind because they did leave a note on the back of my entry tag letting me know that uniformity in my beans would have brought me closer to a ribbon, and my blackberries needed to be shown in a standard cardboard berry basket. One year a young friend entered an apple pie that included raisins. He got a sharp note on the back of his tag saying that the apple pie class demanded a pie that contained only apples. I noted that the premium book for the Franklin County Fair specifically notes that apple pies should contain no nuts, raisins, cranberries or anything else and should not have a crumb topping.

I don’t think the Heath Fair book was so precise but Torpey stresses that gardeners should study the premium book and obey the rules carefully. When entering any contest you will have a better chance to win if you follow the rules. General rules for presentation are certainly laid out in this useful book.

For those whose competitive spirit does take them into the realm of biggest and giant vegetables Torpey has advice from choosing seed to care during the growing season and tips on harvesting and preparing the vegetable for show.

One of the big attractions at the Franklin County Fair is the Giant Pumpkin competition. I once attended a meeting of local giant pumpkin growers and they were full of information about seeds like Dill’s Atlantic Giant, and they traded seeds from giant pumpkins they had grown themselves the previous year. They also had stories about giant pumpkin events, like the year one group hollowed out their pumpkins, then jumped in to sit cross-leggedly with an oar and raced each other across a pond. I love imagining what that pumpkin regatta must have looked like. These are serious gardeners with a great sense of humor!

Torpey gives basic information, and professional tips for growing giant pumpkins. Who knew that a 300 pound pumpkin would need a 10 x 10 foot plot? Bigger pumpkins would need even bigger spaces. Then you have to be prepared to monitor your pumpkin carefully because as it ripens it can grow up to 50 pounds a day, and you don’t want it to  burst from too much rain or overwatering.

“Attention to detail,” Torpey says. “Protect your pumpkins from frost, wind, heat, sunscorch, and other stressors.” Strategic pruning the vine over the course of the season  is also essential.

The book is full of fun facts about the history of exhibiting giant vegetables. An early record of a giant pumpkin was a 245 pounder shown in Devonshire England in 1857. Thesedays giant pumpkins can weigh over a ton.

Girl with her giant cabbage

Girls with her giant cabbage courtesy of Ryan Donnell

I knew about giant pumpkins, but never thought about giant onions or giant cabbages. Tony Glover’s 18.11 pound onion made it into the Guinness Book of Records in 2014, and Alaska seems to be the place to raise giant cabbage. In 2014 young Garrett Streit’s 68.3 pound cabbage won the Junior Championship Award at the Alaska State Fair’s Giant Cabbage Weigh-Off. The secret to Alaska’s giant cabbages is the 20 hours of daylight in the summer. Lots of good illustrations.

Exhibiting vegetables is one way of getting children interested in gardening. Boys’ Corn Clubs were formed in the early part of the 20th century, when a county farmers institute organized a contest to get boys growing corn. Free seeds were distributed and $1 prizes were given to boys after yield per acre and production costs were calculated to decide the winners. The corn clubs for boys were so popular and such a good educational program that they ultimately led to the birth of the Future Farmers of America and 4-H clubs.

Jodi Torpey is a master gardener and has written books including The Colorado Gardener’s Companion. She has also created a digital class titled Vegetable Gardening: Innovative Small Space Solutions accessible from her WesternGardeners.com website. Torpey loves teaching gardening, but she also knows how to spark enthusiasm – and maybe some friendly rivalries. What kind of giant vegetable would you like to grow this year?

Between the Rows   February 13, 2016